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Untilthe1950sSohio,partoftheStandardOilCompanythatwastheoriginalbuildingblockoftheRockefelleroilempire,wascontenttostayinthebordersofOhioandtostayonlyintheoilbusiness.WhenCharlesSpahr,alongtimeSohioveteran,becamepresidentin1959,hebeganlookingatwaystomovethebusinessintoaneweraofdiversityandprofits."Heshookthecompanylikeaterriergrabbingamouse,"asoneexecutiveputit.Sohioexpandeditsgasolinemarketin1962.Itdiversifiedintorelatedfieldssuchasplasticsandminingoilshale.Itintensifiedresearcheffortsinoil-relatedproductssuchassyntheticfibers.

Tomakethesechangeswork,Spahrhadtotransformcompanymanagement.Forthefirsttime,thecompanyputahighpriorityonaformallong-rangeplan.Toppostswerefilledwithmanagement"generalists,"whosetaskwastowatchcloselythereturnoninvestment.Heputpeopleinresponsiblepositionsbecauseofabilityandnotbecauseofseniority.Thestreamliningworkedbecauseofthepresident'sabilitytosellhisideas.TheresultwasamemorableturnaroundofSohiofromastalecompanytoagrowingconcern.

WallyAmosisoneofthemostsuccessfulblackentrepreneursinAmerica.HecallshimselftheJackieRobinsonofthetheatricalbusiness.ItwasAmoswho"discovered"SimonandGarfunkelinaManhattanclub.AmospromotedtalentattheWilliamMorrisAgencyuntilhediscoveredsomethingbetter.AfriendofAmos'droppedbyonenightwithabatchoffreshlybakedchocolatechipcookies,andtheyweresotastythatAmoswantedtoknowhowtomakethemhimself.Simple--the?recipewasonabagofNestle'schocolatechips.Amos'promotermindwentcrazy.Hehad"discovered"somethingbig.Aftermonthsofmakingcookiesforallhisfriends,andperfectingtherecipetomakeithisown,Amoswasreadytolettheworldinonhisnewdiscovery.

???ItwasopeningnightinHollywood,California.Twothousandpeopleweresentspecialinvitations.Aredcarpetdecoratedthesidewalk.Celebritiesarrivedinlimousines.Musicwasplayingandchampagnewasflowing.Itwasthegranddebutof"Famous"Amos'sfirstchocolatechipcookiestore.Amospromotedhiscookiesnationwide,marketingthemtoexclusivedepartmentstoresandspecialtyshops.Withinfiveyears,annualsalesofFamousAmoscookiesreached$5million.Noteveryonecanaffordacarphone,aRollsRoyce,apenthouse,ordiamonds.Butalmosteveryonecanaffordachocolatechipcookie.

Atvirtuallyanystoreinthefreeworld,youcanfindracksfilledwithdesignerfashions.Thatwasnotalwaysthecase.Beforethe1970stheywerefoundonlyinthemostexclusivestores.CalvinKleinchangedallthat.Calvinseemedtohaveaknackforfashionevenasachild.Sometimeshewouldhelphisfriendsbuyclothes.ItwasnaturalforKleintoconsiderfashionasacareer.HestudiedatManhattan'sFashionInstituteofTechnologyinthehopesofbecomingadesigner.

AftergraduationandforsixlongyearsCalvinstruggledwithlow-payingjobsaroundNewYork'sfashiondistrict.Perhapshewasinthewrongindustry.Heconsideredjoiningafamilyfriendinthegrocerybusiness.Instead,hisfriendwassoconvincedofKlein'stalentthatheseededCalvinwith$10,000tobeginCalvinKleinLtd.In1968Kleinbeganbydesigningwomen'scoats.Theywereclassy,simpleandelegantandfittedrightintothechanginglifestylesoftheera.Kleinseemedtohaveaknackforthetastesofthe"post-hippy"generation.Hiscomfortable,stylishandrelativelyinexpensiveclothesintroducedtheconceptofdesignerfashiontoawholegeneration.By1975KleinhadwonthreeconsecutiveCotyawardsandwasinductedintotheCotyHallofFame.

bet356无法登陆Itwasableakwinterin1933.Theweatherandtheeconomywerebothbad.CharlesDarrowofGermantownlongedforthetripshehadmadetoAtlanticCity,NewJersey,butthedepressionlefthimlittlemoneyforsuchfrivolity.Perhapsasthenextbestthingtobeingthere,Darrowconcoctedalittlediversion.HedevisedagamebasedonthestreetsofAtlanticCity:Boardwalk,ParkPlace,BalticAvenue,MarvinGardensandtherest.HecalledhisnewgameMonopoly,anditwasallaboutmakingandspendingmoney,somethingeveryonewantedtododuringthedepression.Darrowshowedthegametoafewfriends,andtheylikeditenoughtowantcopies.Darrowmadeafewcopiesbyhand,andthinkingthathehadagoodidea,showedthegametoParkerBrothers.ButParkerconsideredthegametoocomplicatedtoeverbesuccessful.

???Notwillingtostopbecauseofasingle"no,"DarrowmanagedtoraiseenoughmoneytohavesomesetsprintedandofferedthemtoWanamaker'sDepartmentStoreinPhiladelphia.SoonMonopolywastherageofthecity.Peoplewhonormallywenttobedbynineo'clockwouldfindthemselvesstilltryingtobuyBoardwalkattwointhemorning.Somethingaboutthegamewasaddictive.AfterthesuccessfulshowingatWanamaker's,ParkerBrotherstookasecondlookandacquiredtherightstothegamein1935.Today,Monopolyislicensedinovereightycountriesandintwenty-threelanguages.Itisaworldwidepastimethatevenboastsa"worldseries"ofMonopolythatisplayedeachyear.

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